Unemployment and the Future of Youth

Dr. Fathiya Al-Hamdani

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        Unemployment emerged as one of the social phenomena that largely dominated the industrialized countries.  Over the years and the increase in technological progress, unemployment has clearly expanded, which has helped in the emergence of many problems that affect societies, which requires addressing its causes, and limiting the increase in its spread immediately.                             

      Unemployment is represented in the lack of job opportunities and lack of income, and it is a social phenomenon that is not limited to a particular society;  Rather, it is present in many different societies and civilizations throughout the ages.                              

       Unemployment is widespread today in many developed or developing countries of the world, and its causes are multiple, including technological progress and the resulting decrease in job opportunities due to the automation of many jobs, as well as the decrease in economic resources in some countries offset by an increase in the population, as well as the lack of job opportunities that do not exist correspond with population increase.  Finally, the weak capabilities of the educational systems’ outputs to meet the modern requirements of the accelerating and changing labor market, in addition to the destructive effects of conflicts and wars.                                         

        Unemployment affects young people negatively;  Deviation, drug addiction, and mental illness appear as a result of feeling lost, in addition to a high rate of poverty, an increase in the risks of economic stagnation, a high rate of immigration and other negative consequences.  Unemployment rates differ from one society to another.  An individual may be born poor, but he is not born unemployed, and unemployment is not an individual production as much as it is a collective project in which many young people participate.  Indicators of reports on unemployment in the Arab countries show a frightening rate.  The youth unemployment rate in the Arab countries reached (26.44%), which is the highest rate in the world compared to the global average of (13.62%).               

Unemployment is evident in the youth category between (15-24) years, this category represents approximately (17%) of the population of the Arab countries, and their number is (74) million of the total population of the Arab countries, and this unemployment rate is in countries that have  many of the various economic resources and wealth - marine, agricultural, oil, tourism and others - are high and frightening rate , especially since these wealth actually require a lot of manpower, with varying skills between manual, technical and specialized skills. What you need for these resources to benefit from them effectively is not that difficult.  The question now is: Where does the imbalance lie in the high unemployment rate in countries that possess human resources of diverse categories and gender, and economic resources of diverse entry points?                              

         It can be said that we - in the Arab countries - need a clear and long-term vision of what should be at present, and what should be in the future. This is done by developing strategies based on strategic planning at its three levels (short - medium - long) which must be developed according to a diagnosis  realistic for current and future needs, and in light of the economic capabilities and resources and their needs, and then develop an executive strategy instead of strategies written on paper, strategies to be followed up within the framework of good governance, so that they serve current and future generations.                             

      Overall, there is no society without unemployment, but we can reduce the rate of its spread, especially in multi-resource societies, by following modern methods of planning, and continuous follow-up of the executive procedures of those plans.        

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