Dr. Taha El-Sanawy
It is difficult for human societies to always live on a method of permanent harmony and conformity among themselves far from any difference. The difference with its negatives and drawbacks, but it is at the same time an important factor in bringing about change and development among individuals of peoples. Even though the agreement creates stability and cohesion between societies, but it may create stagnation in the course of life, threaten development, and stop positive change among societies, where it leads them forward, and create a package of positive achievements and changes for it, if the difference is directed and employed in the correct, conscious and logical way to serve the community.
From here, professor of political science, Edward Azar goes on to define the concept of difference as "the social conflict and the extended clash that often occurs between two parties, with the aim of basic human needs such as security, recognition and acceptance of the other", with the achievement of political or economic achievements that would not have been achieved without this difference. As defined by psychologists and sociologists, it is the competition between two parties or two sides, whether they are individuals or groups within society.
Difference in its reality represents a natural phenomenon that may occur in any official or private organization or institution, and this is true in any field or specialty of the disciplines that these institutions occupy, as it varies and differs according to the type of difference, which sometimes develops into conflict and its goal. There is a difference In the economic field, another centered on the political or administrative side, and the third in the educational aspect, and so on.
Many experts and specialists in the field of Difference management, including (Thomas Kilmann), identify five methods of resolving and managing differences, which are: competition, bargaining, cooperation, avoidance and adaptation. Some experts in difference management argue that there are three directions for any difference that is confined to: loss - loss, win - loss, and win - win, so a loss - loss trend means a kind of difference that tends to end negatively on all parties involved. The results from a win - loss trend means winning for one party, usually at the expense of the other party. As for the win-win trend, it is one of the most prominent trends in resolving and managing differences, and it may even be the win-win trend that was reached through integrative negotiation, close to the ideal solution for both parties, and this approach occurs through a cooperative approach instead of a competitive approach.
It can be pointed out here that critical thinking comes at the top of the Bloom pyramid, which is the most sophisticated type of thinking, so that some call it creative thinking because of its distinction and dependence on the scientific aspects, With the logic of its standards, and the objectivity of its view and judgments for the various issues and problems in the reality of individuals and societies' lives. Critical thinking is a distinct scientific thinking that requires the acquisition of special skills that must be applied and practiced by individuals who seek to apply its approach. Among the most prominent of these skills comes the collection of a series of studies, research, information and attitudes related to the topic, discussing these opinions to determine the correct and incorrect ones, and working on identifying and distinguishing the strengths and weaknesses of the Conflicting opinions, as well as evaluating opinions in an objective manner, free from bias and subjectivity, and providing proofs and evidence for the validity of the opinion that is approved. This type of thinking also requires accuracy in observing facts and events, with sufficient space for objectivity in the individual, meaning more clearly following the principle of credibility devoid of emotions in dealing with oneself and with others, and adopting sound scientific rules that respect reason and logic in making all life decisions which are related to an individual's life.
Analysis That Matters.