Latest Research

Through our combined knowledge of scientific research, journalism, and peacebuilding, we grow our databases with primary and reliable information that manifests across YIC products such as our news portal, peer-reviewed journal, and other upcoming outputs. 


YIC delivers some of Yemen's most essential and timely scientific research that generates tested results that inform projects for Yemen's future. Our in-depth studies highlight the challenges and opportunities in reconstruction planning, sustainable development, peacebuilding, societal transformation, and much more.


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The Role of the Academic Staff in Activating the Community Coexistence Culture

Research No1- November 2020

Dr. Balkis Mathar Al Ariki

Dr. Ibrahim Muhammed Al Hanchli

Research Summary

Yemen is facing an exceptional and difficult situation. In order to get out of it, it is necessary to focus on community coexistence and enhancing national cohesion. In this regard, it was observed that there is a gap between the culture of community coexistence and the practices of a number of the academic staff in dealings with their students or colleagues in the work environment. Since the academic staff plays a significant role in spreading community coexistence culture, the current research dealt with the concepts of the culture of community coexistence and the values ​​associated with it among the academic staff and discussed different roles that the academic staff plays to deepen and generalize the culture of community coexistence in the educational environment. In addition, it extracted a set of solutions to activate the spread of the community coexistence culture from the point of view of the academic staff. To reach these goals, the methodology of direct in-depth interviews was used on a sample of the academic staff in different faculties at Sana’a University. This research recommended the need for cooperation of the university administration, its research centres and service facilities to cooperate with relevant official authorities, local and international civil society organizations to support and promote a culture which accept the other as a cornerstone in promoting the community coexistence process. It also recommended the need for implementing many programs, activities, events and projects directed towards faculty members to improve their skills and capabilities enhancement for applying the values of community coexistence culture, where it is reflected in a positive way on the educational environment in various levels.

Peace and development between challenge and contribution

from the Yemeni woman point of view

Research No2- December 2020

Dr. Ahlam Abd Al Kabati

Miss Ahlam Ala Abda

Research Summary

At the global and local level, there is consensus on the importance of the woman’s role in the peace-building process and in promoting community-based development. Many workshops and seminars are held regarding the importance of the woman in the peace building and the promotion of overall development areas at the level of all institutions and bodies. However, the roles assigned to women in reality are not separate from the traditional scope; there is an obvious gap between the capabilities of Yemeni women and their efficiency in performing the tasks assigned to them. Therefore, according to the descriptive research methodology, this research addresses three main axes. The first axis identified the challenges and obstacles that limit the effective participation of Yemeni women in the field of community coexistence and peace building from Yemeni women’s points of view in seven fields: social and cultural, economic, political and legal, familial, personal, media and skills. The research sample found that most prominent challenges facing Yemeni women were: (1) Perception of the male-controlled society limits women participation (2) Deterioration of the living situation (3) Refusal of male decision-makers to the participation of women in decisions (4) Loss of the household head, so the woman became the breadwinner. 

The second axis dealt with extracting solutions mechanisms, and activates the role of women as a key partner of men in promoting peace to reach a comprehensive development. One of the most important solutions was the need to give women the right to participate in leadership positions for decision-making and support women to participate in business and political activities as an actual partner for men, furthermore, activating the legislative and legal side to support women. While the third axis focused on the relationship between development and peace, and accordingly a constructive model was proposed to activate peace and promote comprehensive development (the pyramid of comprehensive development requirements).

The local media role in boosting the social peace building

Research No3 - December 2020

Dr. Taha Fara Ghaleb Al Sanawi

Assist Professor

Research summary

It is crucial to focus on coexisting and building the societal body to get out of the exceptional situation that Yemen is going through. And by virtue of the importance of the media’s direct role in forming people’s orientations towards various cases, the significance of the current research lies on analyzing the role of media in raising collective awareness, building foundations for societal coexistence and promoting peace building in Yemen under its current conditions. This research is divided into two main parts, theoretical and practical. The researcher analyzed in the first part previous studies that were about the role of media in promoting social peace building in order to verify the research hypotheses. While he designed in the second part a questionnaire to measure the role of local media in promoting social peace building in Yemen, as a basic tool in order to achieve the research objectives.  And by using the analytical approach, the most prominent results of this research was a weakness in the role of the local Yemeni media in promoting social peace building. The research was concluded with a set of recommendations that will enhance the role of the local media in coexistence and building social peace.

Time Management and Achievement

Research No4 - December 2020

Dr. Taha Farie Ghaleb

Research Summary

This paper deals with an important element in our life which is time and its importance in human life. A person in itself is a stock of time that shows the importance of time management. Time is like any other resource that needs management, good administration and disposal. 

The paper reveals many facts about time, facts about time management, and the relationship of time management and goal setting. Time was explained and divided. There is time that can be managed and time that cannot be managed such as sleeping and eating times.  The paper also discusses some misconceptions and behaviors towards time. 

The paper uses the Eisenhower Matrix for managing, dividing, and prioritizing tasks. In addition, the most important causes of poor time management skills were reviewed, treatments were presented for these causes, and the paper concluded with 27 tips on organizing and managing time.

Women’s Right and Domestic Sphere 

Research No5 - December 2020

Dr. Taha Farie Ghaleb

Research summary

The talk about family life is broadly understood to mean that it is everything related to the extended family of the woman, from her original family in which she was born to the family she forms through the establishment of a marital bond. Thus, the family lineage was not always attributed to the father, but to date, the family lineage in some tribes and in different places in the world is attributed to the mother, as the woman goes to work, while the fathers remain home to carry out the family affairs.


Although the amended Yemeni constitution stipulates in article 31: that women are complementary to the men and they have rights and duties that are guaranteed by the state and stipulated by Sharia and law. However, the legal discrimination was evident in the Personal Status Law issued in 1992 AD, which governs the personal status law in Yemen, as it contains many provisions that discriminate women.

The family is not a rigid system, but it is subject to change and development, so it is affected by various societal changes.

The Forgotten Treasure in Yemen

Research No6- December 2020

Dr. Belkis Mutahhar Al-Ariqi


Research Summary

Yemen's tourist treasures are not limited to its cities only. In fact, there are countless treasures in its countryside like its natural park that is multi-beautiful and low in cost. In our countryside, we can find stunning landscapes, charming agricultural terraces and very green plains and valleys, as well as villages that combine the beauty of nature and urbanization, mountains and plateaus with high peaks, and a pure and moderate climatic atmosphere throughout the year. It includes wonderful archaeological areas witnessing the glory of our ancestors and their great exploits, as well as pouring waterfalls and therapeutic water springs. In addition to that, the countryside of Yemen is inhabited by people who are kind-hearted and welcoming.

However, rural tourism in Yemen suffers from neglect and indifference to developing its infrastructure, and a lack of awareness of its importance and its economic return on the rural people, and on rural development alike, as is the case in Western countries, and some Arab countries such as Egypt and Jordan.

Developmental Report on the Reconstruction Requirements in Yemen

Research No7 - December 2020

Dr. Ahlam Abdul Baqi Al-Qubati

Research summary

The development report deals with the issue of reconstruction. Yemen is in a critical phase since 2011, a situation of real danger and overlooked the abyss of famine after nearly six years of ongoing conflicts that resulted in a humanitarian catastrophe. Among its results are the inflation, the collapse of the economy and the country's infrastructure, so the reconstruction process has become an urgent necessity to rebuild the economy, establish the State institutions, rehabilitate all infrastructure facilities and rebuild the social fabric. The report dealt with the requirements of reconstruction in Yemen and summarized them in meeting emergency humanitarian aid, providing security and stability pillars, rebuilding infrastructure facilities, engaging the private sector, investing revenues from ports and waterways in supporting the reconstruction in Yemen, activating the role of local institutions and involving them in the reconstruction process, finding solutions to face the economic challenges, developing the political system, activating the concept of citizenship and consolidating its standards, human capital reconstruction, foreign partnership and trade openness. The report also dealt with the most important criteria for the reconstruction process, including comprehensiveness, developmental outlook, sustainability, and transparency. The most important actors in the reconstruction process, including civil society organizations and institutions, international community organizations, local authorities, the private sector, and members of society, have been touched upon, and they have an integrative relationship that aims to make the reconstruction process a success.The reconstruction is a dynamic, comprehensive, multi-domain process. The reconstruction process includes the element of respect to the human rights, the justice achievement in terms of the fair application of the law, and the provision of frameworks to protect the rights of individuals alike as a necessity for societies suffering from individual, collective and national conflicts. This is consistent with the World Bank's definition of reconstruction, and therefore we can say that the reconstruction is providing support of all kinds to the process of transition from a state of conflict to a state of peace, through working on rebuilding the country in various socio-economic and humanitarian fields.The reconstruction is an important variable in the field of political and economic sciences, specifically related to the local and international administration. It is a necessary process in those countries suffering from the conflict, or which have emerged from it, and the United Nations plays a fundamental role in this regard, as it is the main international organization calling in its charter to achieve international security and peace, in addition to local and regional actors.The reconstruction procedures in Yemen since 2015 are considered very weak, if not non-existent. So far, the official announcement of the launching of a reconstruction process has not yet been made, which is supposed to be led by the efforts of local institutions with the support of international and regional organizations to ensure the inclusiveness and effectiveness of the recovery and reconstruction process and achieving a positive impact on the long term.

Reconstruction strategies in yemen

Research No8- December 2020

Dr. Taha Farie Ghaleb


Research Summary

This study aims to come up with reconstruction strategies in Yemen. It followed a practical methodology consisting of two parts: the first part for the office study and the second part for the field study accordingly to the methodology of qualitative study, then applying the focus group discussion (FGD) method on six groups of Aden, Sana’a and Taiz governorates taking into account the representation of female among these groups.


This study reviewed the results of the theoretical side in its first part, where four topics were presented, namely general concepts of disasters, wars and reconstruction strategies, then presented the experiences of reconstruction in Yemen, which has extended since 1974 represented by cooperatives, followed by the experience of Dhamar and Saada Reconstruction Fund and finally the executive office that was established after the incidents of 2011. Furthermore, previous studies were presented such as reports and studies, some of which dealt with reconstruction from the institutional side, another with the issue of reconstruction within a geographical framework, and there are studies that dealt with the issue of reconstruction by identifying the needs but we did not find studies that dealt with these issues from an integrated strategic and institutional side.


As for the second part, it dealt with the results of the field study, in which 6 focus groups were held during which reconstruction strategies have been discussed, where the study sample suggested establishing a higher commission for reconstruction in Yemen to adopt the strategy they have suggested. These strategies are divided into three phases in terms of implementation and have been identified as follows:

  • Strategies to be adopted and implemented during the conflict phase, which are prevention, emergency and relief

  •  Strategies to be implemented after the end of the conflict, called recovery strategies, which are identified and they form a basic pillar of the reconstruction strategies that will be adopted later


Several recommendations were emphasized, the most important of which is the need to expedite the formation of the Supreme Authority for Reconstruction, which is approved by a presidential decree and also receives a recommendation from the House of Representatives, with keenness to participate in the processes of preparing the legislations governing this body in a way that achieves its independence and effectiveness. The recommendations also indicated that the establishment of this body constitutes an urgent necessity in order to implement strategies, work to assess needs and prepare for the post-conflict phase, which will lead to achieving stability and avoid sudden and unexpected shocks for the country.

Agricultural lands have shrunk due to the Orani expansion and its effect on agricultural development

Research No9 - December 2020

Dr. Zikra Muhamad Qaid

Research summary

The study aimed to observe agricultural lands due to urban expansion and to know the role of agricultural land consolidation on the developmental side in the study area, through the production of digital maps that represent urban expansion, agricultural lands, and fallow lands during the period from 1984 to 2 2017 AD in the study area that covers its area. 361 km, and several methods were used in the study in addition to the questionnaire, satellite images, And the topographic maps, and the statistical and spatial analysis, with the aim of coming up with a number of maps that illustrate the shrinkage of agricultural lands, during different stages, and the study reached a number of immediate results, as the study found that the area of ​​urban expansion has increased from 80.3 km2 in 1984 AD to 5.115 km2. In 2017, this was accompanied by the shrinkage of the agricultural land area from 2,238 km2 to 92.15 km2 for the same period, and the area of ​​fallow land increased from 119 km2 to 153.6 km2.

The study revealed that the retrenchment of agricultural lands affected the developmental aspects, including on agricultural development in terms of the top of agricultural production and the shrinkage of agricultural areas, as well as on the environmental development represented in the shrinkage of green spaces, and the distortion of the aesthetic view of a mountain, and its impact on the protected climate as a result of the shrinkage of green spaces and the expansion that Effect on temperature and relative humidity, In the movement of winds, this change varies from one region to another, where the protected climate is more stable and extreme in the center, where urban expansion and areas with high population density on the outskirts and more. The factors that caused the degradation of agricultural lands are the roads, and the increase in the size of the population, and the most prominent recommendations of the study were to establish strict laws that prevent construction on agricultural lands, direct urban development towards non-agricultural lands, enact laws, legislation, and maintain modernization as needed. In order to preserve the agricultural lands, which represent the most important pillars of agricultural, environmental and tourism development.

Old Sana'a

Research No10 - December 2020

Dr. Fathia Mohammed Mohammed


Research Summary

Sana'a city emerges as a shining star in the history of the Arabs since the beginning of the time. It is the origin of the Arabs and the wellspring of originality. It was, and is still, the source of ancient civilizations. Sana'a had been built hundred years ago, and it witnessed many states and different intellectual ideologies, and each of which had a role in Sana'a city, whether in intellectual, political or economic aspect. Despite the events it experienced, Sana’a city has remained and survived and it still represents the official identity of each Yemeni citizen inside or outside Yemen.

Name: There are several views about the name, where the linguists of the ancient Yemeni language (Al Musnad) assert that "San'ou" is the ancient name of Sana'a city, which means the well-fortified place. This is emphasized by the fact that the city is surrounded by walls and fortresses. For the name "Sana'a" in the ancient Yemeni inscriptions (Al Musnad), it is derived from the word "Sanaa" that means to fortify. It is also said "Tasnaa" that means to entrench or fortify also. Moreover, some Yemeni areas are called "Masnaa" and the plural is "Massane", and the word "Yasno'a" is used for smaller places, which means the fortified villages located above elevated places. Sana'a was called as Sam city, the name that is attributed to Sam, the son of Noah, where he was seeking a place of moderate weather and he chose Sana'a. It was also named Azal city. This name was mentioned in the Torah for one of the sons of Yaqton bin Amer bin Shamikh bin Sam bin Noah. It was also said that when the Abyssinians saw that Sana'a is built with stones, they called it "Sanaa".

Despite the foregoing, all of these names (Azal, Sam and Sana'a) are still used for Sana'a city.

Addressing the University Issues in light of Emergencies

Research No11 - December 2020

Dr. Qais Ahmed Al Mohammadi

Research summary

There is a set of justifications and motives that require urgent treatment in the university and technical education. When the Yemeni war commenced its sixth year and due to the non-existence of actual international indicators and directions to stop the bloody conflict in a prelude to bringing peace to this moment, as long as the international support is directed towards the humanitarian response without supporting the issues related to the education directed towards maintaining the remaining components of the economic and social development.. Which means destruction of the Yemeni human’s future through the permanence of the conflict that will inevitably create defeated, corrupt or dependent generations on the external support, which is a catastrophe the effects of which will multiply in the near future, and the treatment thereof will take decades. In view of the prolonged conflict, logically, proceeding with the response programs will turn into a catastrophe per se in case it does not extend to include the supporting programs of development, whose fundamental components are education of all its various stages.

The challenges and imbalances of the Yemeni education sector have aggravated and become at the forefront of the most pressing issues in the contemporary time, which are supporting the teacher and students and creating contemporary specializations, etc. A study conducted in 2020 has revealed the lack of adequate treatments of the economic, social and educational crises resulted from the war in relation to the Yemeni higher education institutions. In this article, we discuss the emergency treatments that do not require strategies and large financial allocations, to be among the alternatives available to the decision-makers and other active authorities, such a manner that is commensurate with the war conditions and deep crises. It is understood that the war resulted in disastrous situations. The components of a single state have become fragmented and many external challenges and internal crises have emerged to face the Yemeni university education, one side of which is clearly and severely affected, while the other side is still not apparent, and its effects on the near future will be more severe.

School Dropout among Girls in Yemen

Research No12 - December 2020

Dr. Taha Farie Ghaleb


Research Summary

The girl is the pillar of the present and the maker of the future. She is concerned with managing and directing family behavior. An educated and erudite mother will establish a constructive family in our present and will contribute to a better foundation for the future, while an uneducated mother is quite the opposite.

Research shows the positive results of increasing the chances of more women and girls getting better and sustainable education, and studies indicate that education raises the standard of living of women economically, socially and healthily.

In a United Nations report in 2012, it was stated that 95% of the 28.5 million children living in low and middle income countries do not receive primary education, as 55% of these children are girls. The 2014 World Bank paper also found that educating girls will also help future residents, and according to UNESCO data, if all females in developing countries complete primary education, the child mortality rate will decrease by a sixth, saving nearly a million people annually.  Maternal deaths due to preventable diseases will decrease by two thirds. This is because education will provide the girl with life skills, including reproductive health, and will give her a social space to contribute positively and meaningfully to most important issues.

Because of the importance of girls’ education, some regional and international associations, bodies and unions have emerged, and we mention, for example - not limited to the Arab Federation for Specialized Women in Egypt. Among the examples of international associations is a movement known as Sister of Hope, which has developed programs aimed at instilling confidence, courage, personal development and upbringing among girls until they become normal, non-dropping out characters. Also the girls on the run movement, and from the principles of this movement: that every girl can accept who she is, determine what she wants to be, and be able to face the challenge, and even change the world. Accordingly this movement has developed her vision, mission and values ​​that are reflected in empowerment, responsibility, determination, diversity, bonding, fun, optimism, gratitude, nurturing, health, kindness of heart and compassion, under the slogan:  Learn, Dream, Live, Run!. The other movement known as Girl Up has focused on igniting the demands of empowering girls. The movement believes that girls are empowered and capable. When they are educated and healthy, they will move their societies for the better and change the world.

Strategic Planning and Performance Indexes

Research No13 - December 2020

Dr. Taha Farie Ghaleb

Ahmed Saeed AlWahsh

Research summary

Today organizations exist within a highly complex and changing environment. They provide their services in a political, social, economic, technological and cultural environment of increasing complexity, day after day, and in which the available opportunities are completely changing. Moreover, organizations are influenced by the huge and accelerated evolution occurring in the world where we are living, and this fact makes it more difficult for the administration to realize the objectives of the organization. Therefore organizations must be capable of acclimatizing and adapting themselves with both their internal and their external environments in order to be able to continue existing, growing and surviving, otherwise they are doomed to vanish and disappear. (Al-Showeikh, 2007, p. 21)

The present paper tackles this subject from two main perspectives: Strategic Planning and Key Performance Indexes (KPI).

The Purpose

This paper aims at investigating the subject of strategic planning and performance indexes.

Analysis That Matters.