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The Displaced in Hadhramaut: Problems and Impacts
Research No10 - June 2021
Prof. Dr. Fathia Muhammed Bahshawan
The study aimed to identify the reality of displacement in Hadhramaut and the extent of providing public services to the displaced, highlighting the problems they suffer from, and identifying the psychological, social and economic effects on them, and their impact on the family and the individual. In order to achieve these goals, the current study adopted the descriptive analytical approach through the social survey method on the sample, and the researcher used the questionnaire tool to collect data, as this study was applied to a group of displaced families located in two camps in the city of Mukalla, which are Bwaysh and Ibn Sina camps, noting that the number of samples reached 53.
The study found that the main reason for displacement is the ongoing conflict in different regions of Yemen, and this has contributed to the lack of many displaced families from many basic services for life such as water, electricity and health services, as well as many children are deprived of completing education due to the lack of identification papers related to their educational levels, and the results of the study indicated that the absence of men in the refugee camps pushed some of the women who are in charge of supporting their families into being marginalized in the process of managing family affairs like distributing food so that they are isolated from camp management committees.
In addition, the study showed a high rate of poverty with the spread of unemployment in the areas hosting the displaced, and the spread of some negativephenomena such as beggary, theft, kidnapping and others.
Community empowerment Is the Basis for Promoting Comprehensive Development in Yemen
Research No9 - April 2021
Dr. Ahlam Al-Qubati
The report reviews the issue of community empowerment as a basis for advancing development in Yemen, where Yemen is experiencing a large-scale humanitarian emergency resulting from the ongoing conflicts and its decline in all areas of development, widening poverty, lack of basic services, absence of state authority, and weak rule of law in many areas. The conflicts have also displaced thousands of Yemeni families and affected families of others in one way or another. This crisis is considered one of the worst humanitarian crises that Yemen has experienced, and the citizen is still living under its continuous repercussions.
It is no longer feasible to look at the challenges facing Yemen in this critical period away from the human resources, and in order to get out of the current situation, it has become necessary to make the issue of the community empowerment a basic rule, as reconstruction and restoration of the economic and social situation will not be effective without empowering community members and developing their skills and capabilities.
The report referred to the most important difficulties facing Yemen, which are: the expansion of poverty, deterioration of the educational system, weakness of mechanisms for empowering human resources in particular the vulnerable groups, including women. The report also reviewed the context of empowerment, its goals, stages and dimensions, in addition to its review of six Arab and regional development experiences.
Finally, the draft report presented a suggested proposal for the community empowerment to advance the comprehensive development in Yemen in a way that suits the Yemeni society. The proposal presented a mechanism to raise the capacity of community members to rely on self-reliance, reduce poverty, raise the educational level, and employ empowerment strategies by activating the community participation in identifying needs, arranging priorities and taking decisions to benefit from all the natural resources and manage their distribution optimally to work on employing the development empowerment strategies that are consistent with the local capabilities and resources, raise the level of education, and secure the decent livelihoods for all the members of society in a fair and equal manner, in order to be an essential step in achieving the comprehensive development goals and social justice to provide a decent lifestyle for all the members of society equally.
The Conflict in Yemen and its Impact on the Economic Aspect
Research No8 - April 2021
Dr. Taha Farie Ghaleb
Yemen has been in a dire economic and humanitarian situation since 2015, and before this date the situation in Yemen was no better; as Yemen used to import up to 90% of the food and most of its needs of medicine and fuel, and the unemployment rate was 45%, while half of the population suffered from food insecurity and 8.4 million people could not access health care services. Before the conflict, grants and foreign aid represented 14.4% of the total public budgetary resources, and the government depended on energy exports for its resources.
Therefore, the current report aims to investigate the impact of the conflict in Yemen on the economic side, using the descriptive and analytical approach, and the results of this research are derived by reviewing the studies, reports and economic publications published during the timeframe of the study 2014 AD -2020 AD.
The most prominent results were that the current conflict had created two financial systems in the same country and caused chaos and great losses to the national economy and the depth of the human tragedy. The results also indicated that the deterioration of the national currency is the flame or the spark that caused the deterioration of the goods and services prices of various kinds, and the deepening of the humanitarian situation to the worst. The results of the report also indicated that the twenty-year decline in human development is the result of the seven-year-old conflict.
The researcher recommends the necessity of ending the conflict in Yemen among the various parties and working immediately and seriously to remedy the current situation, starting with achieving peace in order to be able to save the national economy, in order to reach the advancement of development in all its fields
Tourism and Rural Development in Yemen
Research No7 - April 2021
Dr. Fathia Mohammad
The future stage in Yemen requires getting out of the current situation and focusing on development and activating it in all vital areas in the country in order to improve the standard of living of the Yemeni population, especially the rural population, who represent 71.15% of the general population.
Tourism is considered one of the areas with an investment orientation aimed at achieving development. Therefore, the current research aims to identify the pillars of activating tourism for the development of the countryside in Yemen, and to present a proposed vision to activate those pillars to achieve that development.
The research was based on the descriptive survey and the comparative approaches, whereby the components and manifestations of tourist attraction were identified in rural Yemen. The concept of tourism and its requirements for the development of rural communities as well as the role of tourism in the development of the countryside were discussed. The research found many results, the most important of which are: Tourism in the countryside contributes to increasing economic returns by providing foreign currencies, opportunities for tourism investment and various job opportunities.
The research also found that tourism development in the countryside requires strategic planning, marketing, tourism security, in addition to providing hotels and transportation. By comparing Yemen’s tourism situation with the Kingdom of Morocco, the research confirmed that tourism in Yemen depends mainly on the pillar of the environmental dimension consisting of archaeological, historical and natural sites more than on other pillars. The research determined that the pillars of reviving the tourism to develop the rural are based on the economic, societal, cultural, urban, institutional and environmental dimensions.
Peace and development between challenge and contribution
from the Yemeni woman point of view
Research No6 - December 2020
Dr. Ahlam Abd Al Kabati
At the global and local level, there is consensus on the importance of the woman’s role in the peace-building process and in promoting community-based development. Many workshops and seminars are held regarding the importance of the woman in the peace building and the promotion of overall development areas at the level of all institutions and bodies.
However, the roles assigned to women in reality are not separate from the traditional scope; there is an obvious gap between the capabilities of Yemeni women and their efficiency in performing the tasks assigned to them. Therefore, according to the descriptive research methodology, this research addresses three main axes. The first axis identified the challenges and obstacles that limit the effective participation of Yemeni women in the field of community coexistence and peace building from Yemeni women’s points of view in seven fields: social and cultural, economic, political and legal, familial, personal, media and skills.
The research sample found that most prominent challenges facing Yemeni women were: (1) Perception of the male-controlled society limits women participation (2) Deterioration of the living situation (3) Refusal of male decision-makers to the participation of women in decisions (4) Loss of the household head, so the woman became the breadwinner.
The second axis dealt with extracting solutions mechanisms, and activates the role of women as a key partner of men in promoting peace to reach a comprehensive development. One of the most important solutions was the need to give women the right to participate in leadership positions for decision-making and support women to participate in business and political activities as an actual partner for men, furthermore, activating the legislative and legal side to support women. While the third axis focused on the relationship between development and peace, and accordingly a constructive model was proposed to activate peace and promote comprehensive development (the pyramid of comprehensive development requirements).
The local media role in boosting the social peace building
Research No5 - December 2020
Dr. Taha Fara Ghaleb Al Sanawi
It is crucial to focus on coexisting and building the societal body to get out of the exceptional situation that Yemen is going through. And by virtue of the importance of the media’s direct role in forming people’s orientations towards various cases, the significance of the current research lies on analyzing the role of media in raising collective awareness, building foundations for societal coexistence and promoting peace building in Yemen under its current conditions.
This research is divided into two main parts, theoretical and practical. The researcher analyzed in the first part previous studies that were about the role of media in promoting social peace building in order to verify the research hypotheses. While he designed in the second part a questionnaire to measure the role of local media in promoting social peace building in Yemen, as a basic tool in order to achieve the research objectives.
And by using the analytical approach, the most prominent results of this research was a weakness in the role of the local Yemeni media in promoting social peace building. The research was concluded with a set of recommendations that will enhance the role of the local media in coexistence and building social peace.
Developmental Report on the Reconstruction Requirements in Yemen
Research No4 - December 2020
Dr. Ahlam Abdul Baqi Al-Qubati
The development report deals with the issue of reconstruction. Yemen is in a critical phase since 2011, a situation of real danger and overlooked the abyss of famine after nearly six years of ongoing conflicts that resulted in a humanitarian catastrophe. Among its results are the inflation, the collapse of the economy and the country's infrastructure, so the reconstruction process has become an urgent necessity to rebuild the economy, establish the State institutions, rehabilitate all infrastructure facilities and rebuild the social fabric.
The report dealt with the requirements of reconstruction in Yemen and summarized them in meeting emergency humanitarian aid, providing security and stability pillars, rebuilding infrastructure facilities, engaging the private sector, investing revenues from ports and waterways in supporting the reconstruction in Yemen, activating the role of local institutions and involving them in the reconstruction process, finding solutions to face the economic challenges, developing the political system, activating the concept of citizenship and consolidating its standards, human capital reconstruction, foreign partnership and trade openness.
The report also dealt with the most important criteria for the reconstruction process, including comprehensiveness, developmental outlook, sustainability, and transparency. The most important actors in the reconstruction process, including civil society organizations and institutions, international community organizations, local authorities, the private sector, and members of society, have been touched upon, and they have an integrative relationship that aims to make the reconstruction process a success.The reconstruction is a dynamic, comprehensive, multi-domain process. The reconstruction process includes the element of respect to the human rights, the justice achievement in terms of the fair application of the law, and the provision of frameworks to protect the rights of individuals alike as a necessity for societies suffering from individual, collective and national conflicts.
This is consistent with the World Bank's definition of reconstruction, and therefore we can say that the reconstruction is providing support of all kinds to the process of transition from a state of conflict to a state of peace, through working on rebuilding the country in various socio-economic and humanitarian fields.The reconstruction is an important variable in the field of political and economic sciences, specifically related to the local and international administration. It is a necessary process in those countries suffering from the conflict, or which have emerged from it, and the United Nations plays a fundamental role in this regard, as it is the main international organization calling in its charter to achieve international security and peace, in addition to local and regional actors.The reconstruction procedures in Yemen since 2015 are considered very weak, if not non-existent. So far, the official announcement of the launching of a reconstruction process has not yet been made, which is supposed to be led by the efforts of local institutions with the support of international and regional organizations to ensure the inclusiveness and effectiveness of the recovery and reconstruction process and achieving a positive impact on the long term.
Reconstruction strategies in yemen
Research No3- December 2020
Dr. Taha Farie Ghaleb
This study aims to come up with reconstruction strategies in Yemen. It followed a practical methodology consisting of two parts: the first part for the office study and the second part for the field study accordingly to the methodology of qualitative study, then applying the focus group discussion (FGD) method on six groups of Aden, Sana’a and Taiz governorates taking into account the representation of female among these groups.
This study reviewed the results of the theoretical side in its first part, where four topics were presented, namely general concepts of disasters, wars and reconstruction strategies, then presented the experiences of reconstruction in Yemen, which has extended since 1974 represented by cooperatives, followed by the experience of Dhamar and Saada Reconstruction Fund and finally the executive office that was established after the incidents of 2011. Furthermore, previous studies were presented such as reports and studies, some of which dealt with reconstruction from the institutional side, another with the issue of reconstruction within a geographical framework, and there are studies that dealt with the issue of reconstruction by identifying the needs but we did not find studies that dealt with these issues from an integrated strategic and institutional side.
As for the second part, it dealt with the results of the field study, in which 6 focus groups were held during which reconstruction strategies have been discussed, where the study sample suggested establishing a higher commission for reconstruction in Yemen to adopt the strategy they have suggested. These strategies are divided into three phases in terms of implementation and have been identified as follows:
Strategies to be adopted and implemented during the conflict phase, which are prevention, emergency and relief
Strategies to be implemented after the end of the conflict, called recovery strategies, which are identified and they form a basic pillar of the reconstruction strategies that will be adopted later
Several recommendations were emphasized, the most important of which is the need to expedite the formation of the Supreme Authority for Reconstruction, which is approved by a presidential decree and also receives a recommendation from the House of Representatives, with keenness to participate in the processes of preparing the legislations governing this body in a way that achieves its independence and effectiveness. The recommendations also indicated that the establishment of this body constitutes an urgent necessity in order to implement strategies, work to assess needs and prepare for the post-conflict phase, which will lead to achieving stability and avoid sudden and unexpected shocks for the country.
Agricultural lands have shrunk due to the Orani expansion and its effect on agricultural development
Research No2 - December 2020
Dr. Zikra Muhamad Qaid
The study aimed to observe agricultural lands due to urban expansion and to know the role of agricultural land consolidation on the developmental side in the study area, through the production of digital maps that represent urban expansion, agricultural lands, and fallow lands during the period from 1984 to 2 2017 AD in the study area that covers its area. 361 km, and several methods were used in the study in addition to the questionnaire, satellite images, And the topographic maps, and the statistical and spatial analysis, with the aim of coming up with a number of maps that illustrate the shrinkage of agricultural lands, during different stages, and the study reached a number of immediate results, as the study found that the area of urban expansion has increased from 80.3 km2 in 1984 AD to 5.115 km2.
In 2017, this was accompanied by the shrinkage of the agricultural land area from 2,238 km2 to 92.15 km2 for the same period, and the area of fallow land increased from 119 km2 to 153.6 km2.
The study revealed that the retrenchment of agricultural lands affected the developmental aspects, including on agricultural development in terms of the top of agricultural production and the shrinkage of agricultural areas, as well as on the environmental development represented in the shrinkage of green spaces, and the distortion of the aesthetic view of a mountain, and its impact on the protected climate as a result of the shrinkage of green spaces and the expansion that Effect on temperature and relative humidity, In the movement of winds, this change varies from one region to another, where the protected climate is more stable and extreme in the center, where urban expansion and areas with high population density on the outskirts and more.
The factors that caused the degradation of agricultural lands are the roads, and the increase in the size of the population, and the most prominent recommendations of the study were to establish strict laws that prevent construction on agricultural lands, direct urban development towards non-agricultural lands, enact laws, legislation, and maintain modernization as needed. In order to preserve the agricultural lands, which represent the most important pillars of agricultural, environmental and tourism development.
The Role of the Academic Staff in Activating the Community Coexistence Culture
Research No1- November 2020
Dr. Balkis Mathar Al Ariki
Yemen is facing an exceptional and difficult situation. In order to get out of it, it is necessary to focus on community coexistence and enhancing national cohesion. In this regard, it was observed that there is a gap between the culture of community coexistence and the practices of a number of the academic staff in dealings with their students or colleagues in the work environment.
Since the academic staff plays a significant role in spreading community coexistence culture, the current research dealt with the concepts of the culture of community coexistence and the values associated with it among the academic staff and discussed different roles that the academic staff plays to deepen and generalize the culture of community coexistence in the educational environment. In addition, it extracted a set of solutions to activate the spread of the community coexistence culture from the point of view of the academic staff. To reach these goals, the methodology of direct in-depth interviews was used on a sample of the academic staff in different faculties at Sana’a University.
This research recommended the need for cooperation of the university administration, its research centres and service facilities to cooperate with relevant official authorities, local and international civil society organizations to support and promote a culture which accept the other as a cornerstone in promoting the community coexistence process. It also recommended the need for implementing many programs, activities, events and projects directed towards faculty members to improve their skills and capabilities enhancement for applying the values of community coexistence culture, where it is reflected in a positive way on the educational environment in various levels.
Analysis That Matters.